Ingrid Waldron


A.B., Radcliffe College 1961

PhD, University of California, Berkeley 1967

Post Doc, Cambridge University

Research Interests

Professional Development for High School Biology Teachers

Social and Behavioral Causes of Sex Differences in Health and Mortality

Analysis of trends in sex differences in human mortality and health-related behavior in the United States, Japan, and three Western European countries. Several researchers have hypothesized that, as male and female roles have become more similar, sex differences in mortality and health-related behavior have decreased and will eventually disappear. However, my analyses show varied trends in sex differences for different causes of death and different types of behavior.

One focus is on trends in sex differences in accidents mortality. Although sex differences have decreased for motor vehicle accidents and amount of driving, many other types of accidents and accident-related behavior show stabel or increasing sex differences. My research investigated the contributions to these trends of additional factors such as increasing drug overdose deaths, which affect males more, and certain improvements in health care which have resulted in greater reductions in mortality for females.

Selected Publications

Waldron, I. 2003. Mortality Differentials, by Sex. In P. Demeny and G.

McNicoll, eds., The Encyclopedia of Population. (Macmillan Reference USA,

Farmington Hills, MI).


Waldron, I. 2002. Trends in gender differences in coronary heart disease

mortality -- Relationships to trends in health-related behavior and changing

gender roles. In G. Weidner, S. M. Kopp, and M. Kristenson, eds., Heart

Disease: Environment, Stress and Gender, NATO Science Series, Series I:

Life and Behavioural Sciences, Vol. 327, IOS Press) pp. 80-98.


Waldron, I. 2002. Concept Questions: A Useful Teaching Strategy for

Biology Lectures. In B. Wilbur and C. Johnson, eds., Great Ideas in Teaching

Biology, vol. 1. (Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco, CA) p. 8.


Waldron, I. 2000. Trends in gender differences in mortality – Relationships

to changing gender differences in behaviour and other causal factors. In E.

Annandale and K. Hunt, eds., Gender Inequalities in Health. (Open University

Press, Buckingham, U K) pp. 150-181.


Shin, D., Hong, L., and Waldron, I. 1999. Possible causes of socioeconomic

and ethnic differences in seat belt use among high school students. Accident

Analaysis and Prevention 31:485-496.


Waldron, I. 1998. Factors determining the sex ratio at birth. In United

Nations, Too Young to Die: Genes or Gender?. (U.N., N.Y.) pp 53-63.


Waldron, I. 1998. Sex differences in infant and early child mortality: Major

causes of death and possible biological causes. In United Nations, Too Young

to Die: Genes or Gender?. (U.N., N.Y.) pp 64-83.


Lye, D. and Waldron, I. 1998. Relationships of substance use to attitudes

toward gender roles, family and cohabitation. Journal of Substance Abuse



Waldron, I., Weiss, C. C., and Hughes, M.E. 1998. Interacting effects of

multiple roles on women’s health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior



Lye, D. and Waldron, I. 1997. Attitudes toward cohabitation, family and

gender roles: Relationships to values and political ideology. Sociological

Perspectives 40:199-225.


Waldron, I., Weiss, C., and Hughes, M.E. 1997. Marital status effects on

health – Are there differences between never married women and divorced

and separated women? Social Science and Medicine 45:1387-1397.